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Refer:  Glossary of Ethical Hacking



Glossary of Networking

 
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Networking Terms starting with "A"

A&B bit signaling:   Procedure used in T1 transmission facilities in which each of the 24 T1 subchannels devotes one bit of every sixth frame to the carrying of supervisory signaling information. Also called 24th channel signaling.

AAL:   ATM adaptation layer. Service-dependent sublayer of the data link layer. The AAL accepts data from different applications and presents it to the ATM layer in the form of 48-byte ATM payload segments. AALs consist of two sublayers, CS and SAR, AALs differ on the basis of the source-destination timing used, whether they use DBR or VBR, and whether they are used for connection-oriented or connectionless mode data transfer. At present, the four types of AAL recommended by the ITU-T are AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL5.

AARP:   AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol. Protocol in the AppleTalk protocol stack that maps a data-link address to a network address.

AARP probe packets:   Packets transmitted by AARP that determine whether a randomly selected node ID is being used by another node in a nonextended AppleTalk network. If the node ID is not being used, the sending node uses that node ID. If the node ID is being used, the sending node chooses a different ID and sends more AARP probe packets.

ABM:   Asynchronous Balanced Mode. An HDLC (and derivative protocol) communication mode supporting peer-oriented, point-to- point communications between two stations, where either station can initiate transmission.

ABR:   available bit rate. QOS class defined by the ATM Forum for ATM networks. ABR is used for connections that do not require timing relationships between source and destination. ABR provides no guarantees in terms of cell loss or delays, providing only best-effort service. Traffic sources adjust their transmission rate in response to information they receive describing the statue of the network and its capability to successfully deliver data. Compare with CBR, UBR, and VBR. 2. area border router. Router located on the border of one or more OSPF areas that connects those areas to the backbone network. ABRs are considered members of both the OSPF backbone and the attached areas. They therefore maintain routing tables describing both the backbone topology and the topology of the other areas.

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Networking Terms starting with "B"

Backup:    A copy of a set of files made for replacement purposes in case the original set is damaged or lost. Backward Compatible

Bandwidth:    In analog communications, the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available in the band. In digital communications, bandwidth is loosely used to refer to the information-carrying capacity of a network or component of a network.

Benchmark:    A test performed to compare a computer process in one set of circumstances to another.

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Networking Terms starting with "C"

CHAP:   Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Security feature supported on lines using PPP encapsulation that prevents unauthorized access. CHAP does not itself prevent unauthorized access, it merely identifies the remote end. The router or access server than determines whether that user is allowed access.

CHAP:   Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Security feature supported on lines using PPP encapsulation that prevents unauthorized access. CHAP does not itself prevent unauthorized access, it merely identifies the remote end. The router or access server than determines whether that user is allowed access.

Choke Packet:   Packet sent to a transmitter to tell it that congestion exists and that it should reduce its sending rate.

Circuit Switching:   Switching system in which a dedicated physical circuit path must exist between sender and receiver for the duration of the "call." Used heavily in the telephone company network. Circuit switching can be contrasted with contention and token passing as a channel-access method, and with message switching and packet switching as a switching technique.

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Networking Terms starting with "D"

DARPA:    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. US. government agency that funded research for and experimentation with the Internet. Evolved from ARPA, and then, from 1994, back to ARPA.

Data Link:    The physical connection between two devices such as Ethernet,LocalTalk or Token Ring that is capable of carrying information inthe service or networking protocols such as AppleTalk, TCP/IP orXNS.

Data Link Protocol:    The protocol that controls the network signaling and receivinghardware, performing data integrity checks and formatting information according to the rules of the data link.

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Networking Terms starting with "E"

Echo Test:    A diagnostic test in which packets are sent by one node to another node, which immediately returns them to the original node. Thedata recorded by the echo test includes the success rate of thereturn as well as the time needed to complete the round trip.

ELAN:    Emulated LAN. ATM network in which an Ethernet or Token Ring LAN is emulated using a client-server model. ELANs are composed of an LEC, an LES, a BUS, and an LECS. Multiple ELANs can exist simultaneously on a single ATM network. ELANs are defined by the LANE specification. See also BUS, LANE, LEC, LECS, and LES.

Encapsulation:    The process of placing one protocol inside of another. Usuallyimplies that the encapsulated protocol was not originally intendedby its designers to be carried by the encapsulating protocol.

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Networking Terms starting with "F"

Fiber optic:   A transmission media that uses a light wave for signaling.

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Networking Terms starting with "G"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "H"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "I"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "J"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "K"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "L"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "M"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "N"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "O"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "P"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "Q"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "R"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "S"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "T"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "U"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "V"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "W"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "X"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "Y"

  

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Networking Terms starting with "Z"

  

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